INTRODUCTION: 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY. Communication is very important to the existence of human organization. The environment in which organizations operates today is complex and comprises physical, cultural, psychological, economic, legal, political, technical and other characteristics.
It is in this environment that all organizations must operate their businesses. They must among others analysis the characteristics of economic and social problems and ensure that their policies are adopted and administered in a political system where concentration of power self-interest has to be tacked.
In addition, good communication network in the form of postal and telecommunication has been interpreted with various meanings some regard as it message itself. Some feel it is the channel through which the message is passed while others term it as the cut off message, passing communication can therefore be rightly defined as the process by which information is passed between individuals or organizations by means of a previously agreed method (either verbal or written). In everyday life one seeks information from or passes information to them. This communication can be verbal (face to face) or by telephone written (letter, memos, reports etc) or mechanical (seconding original documents instead of transmitting the message in them). The most vital means of receiving or sending information is oral communication.
Osiegbu (1983:40) said that the factors that contribute to failure in implementation of organizational objectives include lack of clarity of purpose and failure in understanding of objective policies and tasks at any level by any group or individual. Failure in communication or perception clashes of interest of value, gap between anticipated and actual event, degree of flexibility and capacity of organization to respond to the unexpected all those by no means are possible constraints to organizational intention but the major concern here is the breakdown in management function due to no communication. In other words how “effective communication improves managerial performance”.
Communication function is the means by which organized activity is unified, the means by which social input are fed into the social systems or organization, the means by which behaviour is modified, change is affected, information is made productive and goals are achieved, be it business, the military, the government and so on.
In a similar form, communication relates to exchange of facts, opinion or emotions by two or more persons in an organization. It could be words letters, symbols or messages in a way that one organization member shares meaning and understanding with another. On the other hand management is the managing of a complex system of men, machines, money and the physical structure whose effective coordination is necessary in the production of commodities or services that have economic value to the society. The practice of management also rest to a large extent on the role or part which individuals and groups in the organization play and of course the way their activities are harmonized.
Human beings are essentially crucial to the development, growth and success of any organization for it is the human beings that get things done. The practice of management involves taking charge and streamlining the activities of organization members to ensure that as far as possible desired objective are achieved.
The activities are carried out by human beings, (personnel) and physical factors involve the equipment, tools and other material factors used to aid the achievement of the desired objective.
Effective organization performance is realized when all persons and resources are synchronized, balanced and given direction. It cuts various profession, marketing, designing, engineering, the managers effectiveness depends on his ability to listen and to read, or his ability to speak or write.
This implies that communication is needed to convey information necessary for the ongoing operation, and that it can have effect on the attitudes of people on the organization. Therefore communication is essential for both internal and external functioning of the organization because it integrates the managerial function. It needs internally, include to develop plans for their achievement, to organize resource in the most effective and efficient way to select, develop and appraise members of the organization, to lead, direct motivate and create climate in which people want to contribute and to control performance. It is through information exchange that the managers become aware of the needs of customers aware of the availability of supplies, the claims of stockholders, the regulation of government and the concerns of the community.
In this way, the manager is aware of his opportunities and threats of his surrounding environment and therefore knows his does and don’t e.g he then knows whether to recruit staff or not, other managerial decision. The importance of communication cannot be over-emphasized. It can be compared to the blood that runs through the veins and arteries of human body because the function of integration, orientation, decision making and the growth of organization member are performed through it.