(ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS (DCM and n-HEXANE) OF Zingiber Officinale ON ALUMINUM CHLORIDE INDUCED ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE IN SWISS MICE)

ABSTRACT

The effect of Zingiber Officinale ethanol extract and its fraction (DCM and n-Hexane) in an aluminum chloride induced Alzheimer’s disease Swiss mice was studied. The lethal dose (LD so) of aluminium chloride was done by dividing 12 experimental animals into 4 groups and were given aluminium chloride of 3000, 4000, 4500, and 5000 mg/kg respectively. The lethal dose was gotten by the square root of the highest dose that gave no mortality times the, lowest dose that gave 100% mortality rate. The phytochemical constituent of Zingiber Officinale was carried its extract and its fraction based on polarity. Phytochemicals like Alkaloid, cardiacglycoside, Saponins, Tannins, Flaronoid, Anthiaquinoases, phinols were found to be present. For this study 48 experimental animals were used, and were divided into group of six. Group one being the control group, group two, the aluminium chloride induced AD non-treated group, while group three to eight although also induced with AD using Alclz was treated with the standard drug, ethanol extract at low, medium and high dose, and the fractions DCM and n-hexane. The administration of these various substances took place for 3 weeks after which each group were placed on a cognitive behavioural study test called Morris Water Maze (MWM): this test was done in two section, the first which tested for four days were the animals were to get acquainted with the animals were to get acquainted to an hidden platform of escape, this was called acquisition test. On the fifth day, the experimental animals using environmental cues were to remember the location of the hidden platform of escape, this was named probe trial. The time taken for the animal to find the hidden platform and to remember its location was recorded as our time index. The experimental animals were sacrificed and biomarkers such as catalase, CAD Malondialdelyde (MDA) and Acetylcholine (Ache) was tested to know of the extracts and fractions of Zingiber Officiale had an effect in the level of biomarkers of AD. The results showed that Zingiber Officinale ethanol extract and its fraction is effective in reducing the symptoms of AD and increasing the memory level of an AD patient

CHAPTER ONE

  1. BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that causes the brain to shrink and brain cells to die. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia which is a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skill that affects a person’s ability to function independently (Jun et al, 2008). Approximately 5.8 million people in the United States age 65 and older live with Alzheimer’s disease. Of those, 80% are 75 years old and older. Out of these, approximately 50 million people worldwide with dementia, between 60% and 70% are estimated to have Alzheimer’s disease (McCance et al, 2014). The early signs of disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer’s disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday task. Medication may temporarily improve or slow progression of symptoms. These treatments can sometimes help people with Alzheimer’s disease maximize function and maintain independence for a time (Granic et al, 2010).

Different programs and services can help support people with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers.

                    There is no treatment that cures Alzheimer’s disease or alters the disease process in the brain. In advanced stages of the disease, complications from severe loss of brain function such as dehydration, malnutrition or infection which could result in death (Lee et al, 2015). Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease where dementia symptoms gradually worsen over a number of years. In its early stages, memory loss is mild, but with late-stage Alzheimer’s, individuals lose the ability to carry on a conversation and respond to their environment. Alzheimer’s is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. On average. A person with Alzheimer’s lives 4 to 8 years after diagnosis but can live as long as 20 years, depending on other factors (McKhann et al, 2011).

          Scientist believe Alzheimer’s disease prevents parts of a cell’s factory from running well. They are not sure where the trouble starts. But just like real factory, backup and breakdowns in one system cause problems in order areas. As damage spreads, cells lose their ability to do their jobs and eventually die, causing irreversible changes in the brain (Muangpaison et al, 2007).