ESTIMATION OF PATIENT DOSE IN IKOT EKPENE DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGIC CENTRE, IKOT EKPENE, AKWA IBOM STATE

ABSTRACT

Patient doses in a radiologic diagnostic centre in Ikot Ekpene was estimated. The data covering the patient attributes such as age, weight, height were obtained from the radiographer using a predesigned from again the data covering the operations of the machine such as kvp, mAs and output were also obtained. The dose estimated using an equation.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     GENERAL INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria, x-rays is the most frequently used ionizing radiation in medicine despite advances in magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound techniques. It has maintained key role in diagnosis of diseases, injury and x-ray therapy. It is the largest manmade source of ionizing radiation to the world population (ICRF, 1991). X-ray is the major contributor to the effective dose of both the patient and the personnel. Because of the radiological risks involved, it is usually recommended that dose to patient from x-ray be kept as low as reasonably achievable with adequate image quality (IAEA, 1991). In addition, programmes for diagnostic imaging departments, regardless of the size, should at least contain the administrative responsibilities, risk management and radiation safety programme. Equipment quality control unit carried out evaluation of equipment performance to ensure safety. Moreover, radiation safety unit is ensure that patient exposure is kept a low as reasonable achievable and that departmental personnel, medical staff and members of the general public are protected from overexposure to ionizing radiation.

Currently, there far above 4000 x-ray machines in Nigeria (Elegba, 2006) out of which less than 5% are under regulatory control. These thereby pose a great hazard to the patient, personnel and challenges to the regulatory body in Nigeria. As a result of availability of x-ray facilities, some new while others are second hand (known locally as Tokunbo), there have been a constant increase in the number and frequency of x-ray examinations in recent times.

The Quality Control (QC) programmes comprise the regular testing that must be carried out on each major component of the system to ensure optimum performance within the system (West, 1993). In radiology, quality control test is carried out to ensure that a high quality diagnostic image is produced for a minimum radiation dose to the patient (NJRPB, 1988). The major equipment in diagnostic radiology to which quality control can be applied include x-ray production, detection, image processing and imaging viewing equipment among others (Oluwafisoye et al; 2009).

1.2     AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

This project is aimed at estimation of patient Dose in Angels Diagnostic Radiology Center, Ikot Ekpene L. G. A., Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

1.3     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is general experience that optimum imaging with minimum patient and staff does, moreover, safe operation and long life of x-ray equipment can be assured only by regular measurement of technical parameters and checking of their constancy. These tests are generally known as quality control. The project outlines the benefits of quality control on radiographic facilities as well as the hazard effects of excess exposure to ionizing radiations.

X-ray photons that are produced by are x-ray machine are inhomogeneous in energy, hence an energy spectrum is obtained.

1.4     LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

The research is limited only to the radiation dose audit in some hospitals in Akwa Ibom State.