INTRODUCTION: 1.1  Background of the study. Plant oil is oils derive from plant sources, as opposed to animal fats or petroleum. Oils derived from plants have been used for thousands of years. Plant oils have been a healthy alternative to animal derived oils since their discovery. Due to increase in human population and industries, the use of plant oil has drastically increased and as a result, oil from plant is less available and costlier these days’ unsaturated triglycerides are the main constituents of plant oils (Ahmed, et. al., 1999). Oils are classified into essential and fixed oils. Essential oils are used to produce perfumes, flavors, deodorants, antiseptics and pharmaceuticals, while fixed oils are often edible because of their nutritional value (Kubow, 1990). The choice of the coconut seed in this work is due to the high yield of oil compared to other parts of the plant. It is edible oil and has various application in food, medicine and industries (Obasi et. al., 2012). Oil from coconut is used for cooking and are used as feed stock for biodiesel production. In addition to being used as skin moisturizer (Clark, 2011).

Extraction is the process of separation of a substance from a matrix and it can be done either mechanical extraction (expression) or chemical extraction (solvent). It could be liquid-liquid and solid-liquid phase extraction (Young et. al., 1994). In this work extraction of oil from seed was a solid-liquid extraction.

Acid value is the amount of free fatty acid (FFA) present in oil or fat. The value of an oil or fat is the amount of base in milligrams requires neutralizing the free organic acid present in 1gram of fat or oil (Akoh and Nwosu, 1992).

Saponification value of oil or fat is the amount in milligrams of alkali required to neutralize the free fatty acid from complete hydrolysis of the sample. It is a measure of average molecular weights (chain length) of fatty acid present.

Peroxide value is a measure of it peroxide contained in the oil. A solution of oil in the mixture of acetic acid and chloroform is titrated with the solution of potassium iodide (Mattson and Grundy 1985).

Specific gravity or relative density refers to the ratio of the weight of sample to the weight of distilled water. It is given as weight of sample/weight of distilled water. It has no unit.

1.2     Statement of Problem

A civilization continues the usefulness of oils in domestic and industrial application such as cooking, frying, production of soaps, detergents, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals also increases. This work is an attempt to extract and characterize oil from coconut and use it physicochemical parameters to determine its usefulness.

1.3     Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study is to extract oil from coconut seed and characterize the oil by determining the chemical properties of the oil.

1.4     Significance of the Study

Oils have been one of the most essential part of diet of much of the world’s population. It is also used widely in the preparation of soap, biodiesel through tran-esterification reaction, in pain preparation and in cosmetics in general. The more prevalent use of vegetable oil for industrial purpose will become economically viable and renewable when it is used as raw material rivals those derived from petroleum based products.

Due to high use of vegetable oil in different industries. It implies that the cost and availability of the product will definitely affect the cost of the finished products in their respective industries. This prompt the interest of researchers to undergo a study to determine the extraction usage and chemical properties of oil from coconut seed for industrial purpose thereby reducing cost of production of finished products.

1.5     Scope and Limitation of the Study

The physicochemical properties such as acid value, iodine value, saponification value, and specific gravity. However, the characterization is limited to the seed and the above mentioned properties. The choice of the seed is due to the high yield of oil compared to the other parts of the plant.